Gemstones are minerals which are utilized for the purposes of jewelry and ornamentation. Each species of gem material is created by a specific set of geologic conditions and the availability or absence of certain elements. There exists on earth seminal localities for different types of gem materials and amongst these are:
- Copper-rich locality of Arizona lends itself well to the minerals of turquoise, azurite and malachite.
- Rubies and sapphires from Kashmir region of Pakistan and India as well as blue topaz
- Kimberly South Africa where the majority of the word's diamonds are found within igneous intrusions of the mineral kimberlite
- Mina Gerias, Brazil where the world's best examples of quartz including amethyst are found
- San Diego county California and Newry Maine where tourmaline specimens are known the world over