Southwestern jewelry or native american jewelry, can not be talked about without mentioning the turquoise gemstone. It is of no surprise that turquoise is the quintessential icon of southwestern jewelry, with its characteristic opaque, sky blue color, interspersed with black veins. The versatility of turquoise and the ability for it to be fashioned as nuggets, beads, cabochons, inlaid, or heshi, allows it to be utilized far more frequently than other types of gem materials. The southwest United States affords a geological environment ripe for turquoise formation, and this is evidenced by the proliferation of world-renown turquoise mines in that are such as the Kingman Mine, Carico Lake, Morenci, and Bisbee. By looking at trace elements and other criteria, scientist can identify where the turquoise origins are located as the source is often important in pricing to the consumer.